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Monday, 26 April 2010

Satan, Sin , And Curse in Hindu Perspective

Ye tva devosrikaṁ manyamānāḥ papa
bhadram upajivanti pajrāḥ,
Na dūḍhye whatchumacallit dadāsi vāmaṁ bṛhaspate
cayasa piyārum.

Rgveda I.190.5

O Guru of the Gods, do not give them the wealth of the ignorant, the sinful and cunning, and live solely on the generosity of you, who think like your old bull.
But you support those
devoted his life to you.

Preliminary

Writing on the topic seems very difficult to put together, and specifically said the devil (satan) in Sanskrit is translated piśaca or paiśaca. Words whose meaning is similar to the word, among which are giant. In the English called the devil who arinya devil. The word devil comes from the Greek 'diabolos'. People East and West both believe bahwapiśaca or Satan is the enemy of mankind, as well as enemies of the Gods (Mani, 1989:590). Furthermore, the word sin, in Sanskrit padannya is a sin, Papa, and others whose meaning is similar to the meaning of the word, are the curse words, padannya in Sanskrit is said or śapatha in Rgveda (X.87.15) originally meant a curse , and not the oath as an oath in court proceedings (Macdonell & Keith, II, 1982:353).

Topic of this paper seem to like getting the influence of religions that are classified in the Abrahamic Religions Religion or Semitic, which in Hinduism is very difficult these three words are coupled, because different sources of Hindu theology with the teachings of theology of religions mentioned above.
Nevertheless this paper attempts to set forth the source, the story or the meaning of the term or terms above.

Piśaca, giants, and Asuras

As explained above, in the Sanskrit term or word is not known devil (satan). The word is apparently derived from the Arabic (the devil) or Hebrew (satan), whose meaning is very close or similar to the word paiśaca, giants, and asuras. The word devil (satan) in The Student's Home-Sanskrit (Apte, 1987:408) is paiśaca (masculinum) and paiśacī (femininum), paiśacagraṇī, paiśacanātha.

In the Rigveda (I.133.5) is called with the name being in the Atharvaveda paiśacī (II.18.4; IV.20.6, 9; IV.36.4; IV.37.10; V.29.4.5.14; VI.32.2; VIII.2.12; XII .1.50), meaning the same as in the Rigveda, the name of a group of giants. Inside Taittirī yes Samhita (II.4.1.1, also in Kāṭhaka Samhita XXXVII.14) they are associated with the giants and asuras hostile to the gods, humans, and the ancestors. In the Atharvaveda (V.25.9) kravyād they described as meaning 'eater of raw meat', which probably implies that the etymology of the word paiśaca. It is quite possible, that paiśaca as revealed by Grierson, is the enemy of man, such as indigenous in the West Sea, which until the end of the period known as raw meat eaters (not necessarily called cannibals, eating human flesh but in a series of rituals). Similarly, although not all, seem to paiśaca originally meant 'the devil', which looks like a native tribe, it was shown by the identity dicemohkan. One branch of science called paiśacavidyā popular emerged in the late Vedic age, were found in the book Gopatha Brahmana (I.1.10) (Macdonell & Keith, II, 1982:533).

Inside the Purana scriptures, paiśaca described as follows. Malevolent creature is the embodiment of evil. Any person, anywhere on earth, since the new occurrence of the universe has come to believe that evil spirits. According to the Mahabharata (Ādiparva I) paiśaca a creation of Brahma. In the early days of Brahma created 18 led by Daksha Prajapati, Gandharvas, and Paiśaca. Just as in the Mahabharata, the Puranas scriptures is also a creation of Brahma. Paiśaca is the instigator of all forms of crime and play an important role in the books Purana and Mahabharata. Paiśaca lived in the palace of the god Kubera and worship Him (Sabhāparva XI.49). Gokarṇatī rtha Paiśaca live in and worship the god Siva (Vanaparva LXXXV.25). Paiśaca was the leader of evil spirits. Let ci and Rsi Rsi like he created the evil spirits (Vanaparva CCLXXII.46). Drink the blood and the food is paiśaca are meat (Droṇaparva L.9).

The Bhuta (evil spirits) made their king Ravana (Vanaparva CCLXXV.88). In Bhāratayuddha war, a giant horse that pulled the train is the paiśaca Alambuṣa (Droṇaparva CLXVII.38). Paiśaca Karna and he fought against pro help Ghaṭotkaca (Droṇaparva CLXXV.109). Arjuna defeated paiśaca when the forest fire Khāndava (Karṇaparva XXXVII.37). Paiśaca appeared when the battle Arjuna with Karna (Karṇaparva XXXVII.50). Paiśaca Parameśvara worship Goddess Parvati and was meditating on a mountaintop Muñjavān (Aśvamedhaparva VIII.5). During the war many paiśaca Bhāratayuddha transformed into a king (Aśramavāsikaparva XXXI.6) (Mani, 1989:590).

In the Old Javanese literature written by paiśāca paiśaca said that means not so much with meaning in Vedic and Sanskrit literature, namely a kind of supernatural beings, perhaps so called because of his love of meat (Pisa to piśita) or because the color is yellowish; devil , demons, giants, jinns, which means being malicious or spiteful. Inside Ādiparva (30) stated: San Mṛgi makānak piśāca Gana Bhuta ........; this word can also be found in Bhīṣmaparva 109; Agastyaparva 378, 385; Ramayan 8128; 3.20; 23:29; Sumanasantaka 147.10; Sutasoma 125.11 ( Zoetmulder II, 1995:826).

Based on the above description, then in the Vedic scriptures, Puranas scriptures, Satan can be identified with paiśaca, Bhuta, giant, daitya, and asuras who incite or encourage crime, it can permeate every person and even transformed into a king as a leader a country, and others.

Sin, Papa, and have

Sin, Papa, and got the three pieces that word seems somehow related. Sin and daddy or papa, in English, translated into the word sin, and in Sanskrit is pāpam, pātakam, kalmaṣam, duritam, agham, duṣkṛam, vṛjinam, aṁhas, kilbiṣam, etc. (Apte, 1987:427). Those words in Indonesian, translated with the word sin is synonymous with sin in Sanskrit. Contrary to the words sin and Papa in Sanskrit is a word that has merit in English translation. Other equivalent word in Sanskrit is guṇaḥ, yogyata, pātrata, utkarṣa, puṇyam, dharma, śreṣṭhata, viśeṣaḥ, sukṛtam, śreyas (Apte, 1987:286).

In the Old Javanese literature, the word sin means that: (1) sins, errors, violations; (adj.) guilty. See also the term daṇḍadoṣa, guṇadoṣa, nirdoṣa, paridoṣa, sadoṣa, sthānadoṣa, sodoṣa. Terminology is contained in Virātaparva 1994; Udyogaparva 103; Uttarakaṇḍa 25; 68; Ślokāntara 10.30; Arjuna Vivāha 35.6; Ghaṭotkacāśraya 38.3, 42.3; Bhomakavya and Harsavijaya Song 6:46 (Zoetmulder I, 1995:225).

Said Papa in Old Javanese contain a wider sense, namely: (1) sins, bad habits, evil, guilt, penalty / punishment for sin. This terminology can be found on Ādiparva 47; 81; Udyogaparva 9, Brāhmāṇḍapurāṇa 52; Ramayana; Sutasoma 34.8: nora dada dada caddy nin son atiduṣṭa yayah rin. (2) misfortune, affliction, difficulty, difficulties, unpleasant circumstances, misery. Can be found in Virātaparva 75; manahên papa; Agastyaparva 366; Arjuna Vivāha 9.16: lêhêṅa also ri n pêjah saka dada dada anahên iran opponent lara.Smaradahana 8.24, (3) bad, bad, bad, bad, wretched, miserable, miserable, people evil, criminals, sinners.
See also: atipāpa, Maha papa, mahātipāpa.Virātaparva 31; Bhīṣmaparva 111; Uttarakaṇḍa 44; Sutasoma 35.7; Song Harsavijaya 3.95: dada kawêlas won hyun (Zoetmulder I, 1995:758).

Hinduism is basically a very conservative, and many rules used contained in Vedic scriptures and still effectively followed to routine activities of daily by millions of Hindus. Some of them are teaching Karmamārga (road work). Hindu religion like other religions, traditions, always reminded of the importance of an emphasis on the implementation of ethics and morality that are still preserved, but also always be improved. The idea of punishment and repentance against sin wide position in the life cycle of most people living Hindu.Upacara called saṁskāra shows that, not only attended by the members into the next life stage, but also develop their spiritual strength and to believe their personal needs ( Klostermaier, 1990:146).

Inside Bhasmajabalopanisad (165), which represents the character Śaivaistik Upanishads, explained the reward to those who take the attributes (like) associated with this sekta, among tripuṇḍra, which are three parallel lines smeared on their foreheads as a form of homage to the god Siva made of ash. In the Upanishad is explained about the virtue and chastity penggunanan ash (vibhuti) made from cow dung, and how the ash is used.

"To the Brahmin wearing bhasma (ash) is good and right behavior. Without using these signs, one can not drink or do something. He should use the signs (of ash) was followed by the Gayatri-mantra pronunciation or present offerings at the sacred fire. By using the signs that someone walking on the right path to destroy all sins and attain salvation (Moksha) ... .. He uses the signs from the ashes in the morning right, the concerned will be freed from all sins committed the previous night, including the sin that comes for stealing gold. He is doing (of sin) in the day and meditating on the sun, freed from sin due to an intoxicating drink, steal the gold, kill the Brahmin, killed a cow, kill a horse, killing the teacher, and killed the father and mother. By pleading protection through holy ash three times a day, he received a reward from learning the Vedas, he received glory (good service) because purify themselves in the entire 35 000 rthan starch (temple where the holy water), he achieved perfection in life "(Klostermaier, 1990: 153).

In the book Chāndogya Upanisad (V.10.9-10) stated that: "He who steals gold, who drinks, who does not salute his teacher's bed, he who kills Brahmana, four of them fall into sin (mahāpātaka), and the The fifth is an associate with them. However, people who are not tainted by the crimes, even though iam hanging out with such a person. He became a pure, clean, to reach the world of virtue (puṇyaloka), he who knows this, so he knows it "(Radhakrishan, 1990:434).
Furthermore Manusmṛti (VIII.381) states: "There is no greater crime than killing Brahmins act, because it should not occasionally occur in the liver to make it" (Pudja & Sudharta, 2004:429). In the same book (VIII.350-251) stated:
"Someone should kill a killer, without a doubt that with the intent to kill if he was a teacher, children, old people, or a Brahmin who expert in the Vedas.
By killing an assassin, the murderer did not do wrong (sin), does he do in public or openly in the matter of anger against anger (Pudja & Sudharta, 2004:422). Inside Vaśiṣtha Dharmasūtra
(III.15-18) stated that a man who committed murder against perpetrators sad ātatāyi (ātatāyin) then the killer was not deemed to sin (Kane, II.1, 1974:149).

Inside Bhagavadgītā (XVI.21) mentioned the existence of three gates of hell which is a sin or papa who delivered to the three gates of hell, namely: Kama (Moha), lobha, and krodha. Third bad deeds (pāpakṛt) a papa or sin that should be avoided by everyone, especially those who want to succeed on the path of spiritual (Tri surname).

Book Ślokāntara 75-78 distinguishes four kinds of sin, ie sin banner, sin upapātaka, mahāpātaka sin, and sin, respectively atipātaka called small sins, the sins of the medium, a great sin, and the greatest sin, respectively as follows: (1) sin banner include: bhrunahā, abortionist, puruṣaghna, killing other human beings, such as writers and tycoons, kanyācora, run girl by force, agrayajaka, which precedes mating older brother, (2) Sin upapātaka include: govadha, killing cattle, yuwatī vadha, killing a young woman, bālavadha, killing children, vṛddhavadha, killing parents, āgāravadha, burning houses and their inhabitants. (3) Sin mahāpātaka, including: brāhmavadha, kill the Brahmin, surāpāna, drink alcohol, or who memabukan, suvarṇasteya, stealing gold, kanyāvighna, raping a girl until she was dead, guruvadha, killing teacher. (4) Sin atipātaka, including: svaputrī bhajana, raping his own daughter, matṛbhajana, raping his own mother, and liṅgagrahaṇa, damaging the shrine or place of worship (Sudharta, 2003:252-259).

Similarly Ślokāntara book which is in the form of teaching morality and translations of Sanskrit texts in ancient Javanese language. More about have can be explained as follows. Have said, in English, is the equivalent of merit in Sanskrit, among others: in order, yogyata, utkarṣa, śreṣṭhatā, dharma, sukṛtam, śreyaḥ, and similar to that (Apte, 1987:286).

Inside Manavadharmaśāstra or Manusmṛti (XII.105-106) stated:
"Someone who wants to obtain the purification of the dharma (dharmaśuddhi) should have mastered the various branches of science. Only those who master the 'tarka' (the ability to analyze things) and not mempertentangan Vedic literature (Vedaśāstra) with the teachings of the Vedic scriptures, which is the dharma teachings taught by the RSI, who will master the dharma, not the other. " Further in the book of the same (IV.175-176) also
stated: "Therefore, one should always have fun implementing kebenaraan, obedient to the teachings of the holy (Veda), laudable act, as a noble, sacred heart always ... ... An act that if in the end does not give happiness and strongly condemned in this world (lokavikruṣṭha) was not the Dharma, and should be abandoned. " The same is also disclosed in Yajñavalkya Smriti (VI.156).

Next on the mastery of the sacred teachings of the Vedas, Sri Kṛṣṇa in Bhagavadgītā (XVI.24) states: "Therefore, make holy book into the handle of your life to determine what to do and what not to do. By knowing the sacred teachings (Vedas) is, will you be doing work in this world. " Explanation is in line with the translation of the mantra of the Brahmans Śatapatha (XI.5.7.1) follows.

"Learning and broadcast the sacred teachings Veda.Dia who know this to mind centered. He did not become slaves to lust. His wish will come true, and he lived to enjoy happiness. Indeed he became a healer herself. Himself controlled, full of bhakti, with a wise mind. He reached kemashyuran and do good in this world. " Based on these excerpts, it is clear to us that all the sacred teachings of the Vedas should be used as guidelines virtue (have) in life and this life.


Śapatha (Curse)

As already mentioned in the introduction, or Śapatha Sapa said on oath that a curse and not in litigation, as stated in Rigveda X.87.15. This last notion seems to appear later, as indicated by the Atharvaveda III.9.5, IV.9.5; IV.18.7; IV.19.7, and VII.104.15 Rigveda, which states that Vasiṣṭha cursed and obtained a death when he committed the crime (voodoo people) , and death to its enemies if he did not do that.

About a curse or a person who suffered the curse, so much information can be found in the books Itihāsa (Ramayana and Mahabharata) and in the books of Purana. In the Ramayana there is ki work Vālmī ceritra Ahalya into stone goddess condemned by her own husband Mahārṣi Gautama, because the god Indra who came to the hermitage teased with manyamar as Mahārṣi Gautama himself. Ahalya free from the curse (pariśuddha) after Lord Rama feet touched the stone, and Ahalya back into the sacred (Mani, 1989:17). Similarly ceritra sons condemned by king Sagara Mahārṣi Kapila in the story of the decline of the river Ganga. Sons of king Sagara managed to achieve Moksha Mahārṣi after being washed in the holy Ganga water (Mani, 1989:17). Inside the Purana scriptures very much ceritra about curses, even the gods are also experiencing the same thing.

Vijayalakṣmī turned into Laṅkalakṣmī, because the curse of Brahma. Vijayalakṣmī is one of the guardians of wealth Lakshmi Brahma. One day, one out of the negligent conduct tugasnya.Dewa Brahma was very angry and cursed him, "You go to where Ravana and guard tower!". He humbly begged for pardon curse. Brahma said: "At the time of the incarnation of Lord Rama, a hero named Hanuman monkey will go to Lanka in search of Lord Rama's wife, who had been abducted by Ravana, and he'll hit you. At that time you will be freed from the curse and you'll be right back here! "According to him, Vijayalakṣmī born with the name Laṅkalakṣmī Lanka.

When Hanuman flies to Lanka, he stopped, and when it hit Hanuman fell to earth (his campaign Ramayana, Sundara Kanda) (Titib, 2004:184) A day devoted to Sang Hyang Brahma, Siva and begged his willingness to become his own son. Sang Hyang Siva was not pleased with the request. Siva was angry and cursed, "I will be your child. But I'll cut your face to-5 '. Since then Brahma has only four faces (Caturmukha) (Titib, 2004:199). So pretty much śapatha which can be found in the books of Purana.

Śapathaatau curse can be found not only in literature. In the inscriptions published by the good king in India, in the archipelago, including in Bali found information about the curse.
Even in the lontar Chronicle (ceritra-ceritra ancestors) in Bali found also that and are generally referred to with the same Bhi which also included a śapatha.Śapatha can be terminated with various ceremonies (rituals, such as prayaścitta, nilapati or daṇḍakalêpasan) and hermitage ( also include various forms of fasting) is done with diligence.

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